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In mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in an isometric-hexoctahedral crystal lattice. After graphite, diamond is the second most stable form of carbon. Its hardness and high dispersion of light make it useful for industrial applications and jewelry. It is the hardest known naturally occurring mineral. It is possible to treat regular diamonds under a combination of high pressure and high temperature to produce diamonds that are harder than the diamonds used in hardness gauges. A material called lonsdaleite is confirmed to be 58 percent stronger than diamond and is the hardest material known to date. Aggregated diamond nanorods, a material created using ultrahard fullerite (C60) is also harder than diamond, other substances such as cubic boron nitride, wurtzite boron nitride, rhenium diboride and ultrahard fullerite itself are comparable.
Diamonds are specifically renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities; they make excellent abrasives because they can be scratched only by other diamonds, borazon, ultrahard fullerite, rhenium diboride, or aggregated diamond nanorods, which also means they hold a polish extremely well and retain their lustre. Approximately 130 million carats (26,000 kg (57,000 lb)) are mined annually, with a total value of nearly USD $9 billion, and about 100,000 kg (220,000 lb) are synthesized annually.
Roughly 49% of diamonds originate from central and southern Africa, although significant sources of the mineral have been discovered in Canada, India, Russia, Brazil, and Australia. They are mined from kimberlite and lamproite volcanic pipes, which can bring diamond crystals, originating from deep within the Earth where high pressures and temperatures enable them to form, to the surface. The mining and distribution of natural diamonds are subjects of frequent controversy such as with concerns over the sale of conflict diamonds (aka blood diamonds) by African paramilitary groups.
Bangles or Chudi (Tamil: Valayal) (Telugu: Gaaju) are traditional ornaments worn by Pakistani women and Indian women, especially Hindus. They wear after marriage signifying the matrimony.
They are circular in shape, and, unlike bracelets, are not flexible. The word is derived from Hindi bungri (glass). They are made of numerous precious as well as non-precious materials such as gold, silver, platinum, glass, wood, ferrous metals, plastic, etc.
Bangles are part of traditional Indian jewelry. They are usually worn in pairs by women, one or more on each arm. Most Indian women prefer wearing either gold or glass bangles or combination of both. Inexpensive Bangles made from plastic are slowly replacing those made by glass, but the ones made of glass are still preferred at traditional occasions such as marriages and on festivals.
The designs range from simple to intricate handmade designs, often studded with precious and semi-precious stones such as diamonds, gems and pearls.
Sets of expensive bangles made of gold and silver make a jingling sound. The imitation jewelry, tend to make a tinny sound when jingled.
Some men wear a single bangle on the arm or wrist called as kada. In Sikhism, The father of a Sikh bride will give the groom a gold ring, a kada (steel or iron bangle), and a mohra.